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A Review on Pathogenesis, Transmission, Diagnosis and Prevention of Hepatitis B infection
Review
  

A Review on Pathogenesis, Transmission, Diagnosis and Prevention of Hepatitis B infection


Lord Tertese Angahar

Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture P. M. B 2373 Makurdi, Nigeria


Lord Tertese Angahar,
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Received: November 12, 2017,   Accepted: December 10, 2017,   Published:


Abstract:

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). A double-stranded virus of the hepadnaviridae family. It infects the liver, causing hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. HBV infection can be either acute or chronic, and the associated illness ranges in severity from asymptomatic to symptomatic, progressive disease. Over two billion people are known to be infected with Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B disease is ranked among the ten top killer diseases, with over a million deaths recorded annually from chronic HBV infection and its complications: cirrhosis or primary liver cancer. Liver injury occurs through immune-mediated killing of infected liver cells. Hepatitis B disease has huge health, mortality and economic burden. This review was aimed at contributing to global knowledge on Hepatitis B infection with the objectives of controlling its spread through prevention and vaccination. The review was on the burden and epidemiology of HBV, it’s Pathogenesis, Transmission modes, Signs and symptoms, Risk factors for Hepatitis B, Diagnosis, Drugs approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and prevention of HBV infection. This review noted that HBV vaccination is very effective and remains the best way to prevent Hepatitis B infection. Vaccination should be administered to everyone, but especially those who are at risk. Infants should be vaccinated within 24 hours of delivery. The review noted that avoiding risky behaviours through the practice of safe sex, use of protective hand gloves when handling blood or other body fluids, not sharing personal items like nail cutter, clippers, razors, or toothbrushes, single use of only sterilized disposable needles or body piercing objects, and screening of pregnant women before child delivery are very significant in HBV prevention.


Keywords: Acute Hepatitis B, Chronic Hepatitis B, Risk factors, Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention.


Citation:

Lord Tertese Angahar. (2017 A Review on Pathogenesis, Transmission, Diagnosis and Prevention of Hepatitis B infection. J. of Advancement in Medical and Life Sciences. V6I1DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1118144


Copyright:

© 2017 Lord Tertese Angahar. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


      
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